Categories
Uncategorized

hypnosis

hyp·no·sis

 (hĭp-nō′sĭs)n.pl.hyp·no·ses(-sēz)

1. An artificially induced altered state of consciousness, characterized by heightened suggestibility and receptivity to direction.

2. Hypnotism.

3. A sleeplike condition.

[New Latin hypnōsis, from Greek hupnoun, to put to sleep; see hypnotic.]

hypnosis

(hɪpˈnəʊsɪs)n,pl-ses(-siːz)

(Psychology) an artificially induced state of relaxation and concentration in which deeper parts of the mind become more accessible: used clinically to reduce reaction to pain, to encourage free association, etc. See also autohypnosis

hyp•no•sis

(hɪpˈnoʊ sɪs)

n., pl. -ses (-sēz).

1. an artificially induced trance state resembling sleep, characterized by heightened susceptibility to suggestion.

2. hypnotism (defs. 1, 2).

[1875–80; hypn (otic) + -osis]

hyp·no·sis

(hĭp-nō′sĭs)

A trance-like state resembling sleep in which a person becomes very responsive to suggestions from another. Hypnosis is brought on by having one fix one’s attention on a particular object, and it can be self-induced through concentration and relaxation.

Hypnosis

See also psychology.

autohypnotism, autohypnosis

1. the process of hypnotizing oneself.
2. the resulting state.

biomagnetism

1. animal magnetism, or the power that enables some people to induce a hypnotic state in others.
2. physical attraction between members of opposite sexes. — biomagnetic, adj.

hypnoanalysis

psychoanalysis of a patiënt while he is under hypnosis. — hypnoanalytic, hypnoanalytical, adj.

hypnogenesis

the process of inducing a state of hypnosis. — hypnogenetic, adj.

hypnotherapy

psychotherapy employing hypnosis. — hypnotherapeutic, adj.

hypnotism

the science that studies hypnosis and the process of inducing a hypnotic state. — hypnotist, n.

Mesmerism

1. hypnosis as induced by Dr. F. A. Mesmer through “animal magnetism,” a 19th-century therapy.
2. hypnotism.
3. a compelling attraction; fascination. — mesmerization, n. — mesmerist, mesmerizer, n.

mesmeromania

an obsession with hypnosis.

monoideism

the focusing of the attention on a single thing, especially as a result of hypnosis.

narcohypnosis

hypnosis with the aid of drugs.

odylism

the theory of od, a hypothetical force formerly held to pervade all nature and to reveal itself in magnetism, mesmerism, chemical action, etc. — odylic, adj.

psycheism

Rare. the state of being in a hypnotic trance.

somnipathy

a state of sleep induced by hypnosis or mesmerism. — somnipathist, n.

hypnosis

Commonly used in hypnotherapy, this is an altered state of consciousness that can be induced by the self or by another person and during which conscious control is relaxed, making the contents of the unconscious more accessible. Hypnosis is from the Greek word “hypnos,” meaning “sleep.”

Source

Categories
Uncategorized

Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP Definition + Examples)

If you’re here, you’re probably wonder what NLP, or NeuroLinguistic Programming is. Fear not, because we are going to give you everything you need to know about it, including a psychological definition and example!

We are creatures of habit. We often do things in a particular way without even thinking about it. Some of these repeated actions are important, like putting on the seat belt when we get into a car. Others, such as nail biting or smoking, are unpleasant and unhealthy. But even though we know they are bad for us, changing them is not easy. 

A psychological approach called neuro-linguistic programming is an effective way to create new perspectives and behavior patterns that can help us eliminate those unwanted habits.

What Is Neuro-Linguistic Programming? 

Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) is a way of changing our thoughts and behaviors to help achieve desired outcomes. 

Because our neurological processes, behavior, and language are interconnected, we can “reprogram” our brains to control our thoughts and actions. NLP is a useful tool not only for changing behaviors but also for improving communication and developing better personal and business relationships. 

Neuro-linguistic programming was developed by information scientist Richard Bandler and linguist John Grinder at the University of California, Santa Cruz in the 1970s. From the very start, NLP was seen as a helpful tool in personal development and has been used extensively ever since. Neuro-linguistic programming has a wide range of applications in counseling, medicine, law, business, sports, and education. 

Core Principles of Neuro-Linguistic Programming

Neuro-linguistic programming is based on four core principles:

  • Sensory awareness is one of the central elements of neuro-linguistic programming. Being mindful of our own and other people’s reactions in any given situation allows us to have more flexibility and control.
  • Building rapport refers to creating relationships that are built on mutual trust and understanding. Successful personal and business interactions largely depend on our ability to establish and maintain a rapport with others. 
  • Outcome thinking helps us direct our thoughts and avoid limiting ourselves by negative thinking. It enables us to make optimal choices and achieve the goals we set for ourselves.
  • Behavioral flexibility allows us to change unproductive behaviors, create new perspectives, and build healthy habits.

How Does Neuro-Linguistic Programming Work? 

In neuro-linguistic programming, our minds are perceived as internal operating systems consisting of thoughts, feelings, and beliefs. NLP determines the ways in which our states of mind affect the way we act and communicate with others and, even more importantly, ourselves. These systems can be accessed and changed or “programmed” through language. 

Internal maps

Neuro-linguistic programming is based on the idea of internal maps. Internal maps are our personal representations of reality. We learn to navigate these maps through sensory experiences that determine our feelings and behaviors. They can be either auditory, visual, olfactory, gustatory, or kinesthetic. With the help of NLP, it is possible to modify any subconsciously created limitations of our individual maps. 

NLP presupposes that we are biased towards one of our sensory systems, whether it is images, feelings, sounds, taste, or smell. Therefore, we tend to use our preferred representational system (PRS) to process our experiences. But if we manage to operate with all the representational systems and make use of the most suitable one in different circumstances, we will succeed in increasing our behavioral flexibility.

Modeling excellence

An important aspect of neuro-linguistic programming is modeling or recreating excellence. Modeling provides strategies for copying the accomplishments of others in order to introduce excellence into our own lives. We can model any skill or behavior by mastering the underlying beliefs and thought processes and applying them to our lives.

Logical levels of change

The model of logical levels of change is an indispensable tool in NLP. It is used to create plans for modifying undesirable thoughts or behaviors. 

The model was inspired by renowned British anthropologist and linguist Gregory Bateson. According to Bateson, learning consists of natural hierarchies. These hierarchies provide a roadmap for the change process. Each of the six levels influences and directs the ones below.

Environment

Environment, the setting and people that surround us, is the lowest NLP logical level and the easiest one to modify. Simply changing something in the environment or network can eliminate triggers and modify addictive or obsessive behaviors. 

Behaviors

Behaviors often contribute to negative actions and thoughts. It is crucial to be able to identify the unwanted behaviors that should be changed. 

Capabilities and skills

Capabilities and skills refer to our ability to make the desired changes, as well as identifying the tools needed to make those changes. Techniques such as meditation, hypnosis, positive thinking, and relaxation can be used in overcoming fears, for instance.

Beliefs and values

Beliefs and values give us internal permission to change. Addictions, obsessions, and other undesirable behaviors can become an important value that negatively affects all the other personal values.

Identity

Identity is an evaluation of our ability to implement changes. It can be either positive or negative.

Purpose and spirituality

Purpose and spirituality pertain to the involvement in religion or ethics, where the change is seen as part of something larger than ourselves. 

Neuro-Linguistic Programming in Therapy

NLP is commonly used in therapy for treating a wide range of issues from anxiety and phobias to post-traumatic stress disorders and depression. An NLP therapist will try to understand the patient’s thinking, behavior patterns, emotional states, and aspirations. By analyzing the individual’s internal maps, the therapist can help find and strengthen the most beneficial skills and develop new strategies to replace old, unproductive ones. 

NLP therapists use a number of different techniques, including:

Anchoring 

Similarly to Pavlov’s conditioning, anchoring consists of turning sensory experiences into triggers for a desired emotional state or frame of mind. The anchor can be a gesture like squeezing the thumb and the index finger together or word that is associated with positive emotion. The goal is to be able to immediately access the desired emotional or mental state through the chosen anchor. After some practice, negative emotions can be replaced using these learned triggers. 

Swish pattern

Just like anchoring, the swish pattern technique consists of changing response patterns to a situation that causes unwanted behaviors. It can be applied in the cases of anxieties and obsessions, for example. Patients are asked to identify the causes of their problematic behavior. They can then mentally replace the image of the usual response to that trigger by the desired one. With some practice, the new response will be generated automatically whenever the cue occurs and gradually replace the old one.

Visual-kinesthetic dissociation 

Visual-kinesthetic dissociation (VKD), also known as the rewind technique, is useful in eliminating obstructive thoughts and feelings associated with a past event like traumatic memories and phobias. When an event is reimagined and relived from the safe distance of an out-of-body experience, thinking about it will no longer set off unwanted emotions. 

Limitations of Neuro-Linguistic Programming

The most significant limitation of NLP is a lack of empirical evidence. Even after several decades of its use, the effectiveness of neuro-linguistic programming and the validity of its theories have not yet been clearly demonstrated by research. 

In addition, scientific research on NLP has produced mixed results. Several studies have provided firm proof that it is an effective mode of treatment for mental health issues. At the same time, there is little clinical evidence for the effectiveness of NLP in treating some health-related conditions, such as anxiety disorders, weight management, and addictions.

How to reference this article:

Theodore. (2020, May). Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP Definition + Examples). Retrieved from https://practicalpie.com/neuro-linguistic-programming/. Theodore. (2020, May). Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP Definition + Examples). Retrieved from https://practicalpie.com/neuro-linguistic-programming/.

Copy

Source

Categories
Uncategorized

Meditation: In Depth

How much do we know about meditation?

Many studies have been conducted to look at how meditation may be helpful for a variety of conditions, such as high blood pressure, certain psychological disorders, and pain. A number of studies also have helped researchers learn how meditation might work and how it affects the brain.

What do we know about the effectiveness of meditation?

Some research suggests that practicing meditation may reduce blood pressure, symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety and depression, and insomnia. Evidence about its effectiveness for pain and as a smoking-cessation treatment is uncertain.

What do we know about the safety of meditation?

Meditation is generally considered to be safe for healthy people. However, people with physical limitations may not be able to participate in certain meditative practices involving movement.

What Is Meditation?

Meditation is a mind and body practice that has a long history of use for increasing calmness and physical relaxation, improving psychological balance, coping with illness, and enhancing overall health and well-being. Mind and body practices focus on the interactions among the brain, mind, body, and behavior. A new report based on data from the 2017 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) found that U.S. adults’ use of meditation in the past 12 months tripled between 2012 and 2017 (from 4.1 percent to 14.2 percent). The use of meditation by U.S. children (aged 4 to 17 years) also increased significantly (from 0.6 percent in 2012 to 5.4 percent in 2017).

There are many types of meditation, but most have four elements in common: a quiet location with as few distractions as possible; a specific, comfortable posture (sitting, lying down, walking, or in other positions); a focus of attention (a specially chosen word or set of words, an object, or the sensations of the breath); and an open attitude (letting distractions come and go naturally without judging them).

What the Science Says About the Effectiveness of Meditation

Many studies have investigated meditation for different conditions, and there’s evidence that it may reduce blood pressure as well as symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and flare-ups in people who have had ulcerative colitis. It may ease symptoms of anxiety and depression, and may help people with insomnia.

Read more about meditation for these conditions:

Meditation and the Brain

Some research suggests that meditation may physically change the brain and body and could potentially help to improve many health problems and promote healthy behaviors.

  • Meditation is generally considered to be safe for healthy people.
  • People with physical limitations may not be able to participate in certain meditative practices involving movement. People with physical health conditions should speak with their health care providers before starting a meditative practice, and make their meditation instructor aware of their condition.
  • There have been rare reports that meditation could cause or worsen symptoms in people with certain psychiatric problems like anxiety and depression. People with existing mental health conditions should speak with their health care providers before starting a meditative practice, and make their meditation instructor aware of their condition.

NCCIH-Funded Research

NCCIH-supported studies are investigating meditation for:

  • Teens experiencing chronic, widespread pain, such as from fibromyalgia
  • Stress reduction for people with multiple sclerosis
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder, headaches, reducing blood pressure.

More to Consider

  • Don’t use meditation to replace conventional care or as a reason to postpone seeing a health care provider about a medical problem.
  • Ask about the training and experience of the meditation instructor you are considering.
  • Tell all your health care providers about any complementary or integrative health approaches you use. Give them a full picture of what you do to manage your health. This will help ensure coordinated and safe care.

NCCIH Clearinghouse

The NCCIH Clearinghouse provides information on NCCIH and complementary and integrative health approaches, including publications and searches of Federal databases of scientific and medical literature. The Clearinghouse does not provide medical advice, treatment recommendations, or referrals to practitioners.

Toll-free in the U.S.: 1-888-644-6226

tty (for deaf and hard-of-hearing callers):

1-866-464-3615

Website: https://nccih.nih.gov/

Email: info@nccih.nih.gov (link sends e-mail)

PubMed®

A service of the National Library of Medicine, PubMed® contains publication information and (in most cases) brief summaries of articles from scientific and medical journals. For guidance from NCCIH on using PubMed, see How To Find Information About Complementary Health Approaches on PubMed.

Website: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

NIH Clinical Research Trials and You

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has created a website, NIH Clinical Research Trials and You, to help people learn about clinical trials, why they matter, and how to participate. The site includes questions and answers about clinical trials, guidance on how to find clinical trials through ClinicalTrials.gov and other resources, and stories about the personal experiences of clinical trial participants. Clinical trials are necessary to find better ways to prevent, diagnose, and treat diseases.

Website: https://www.nih.gov/health-information/nih-clinical-research-trials-you

Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools Expenditures & Results (RePORTER)

RePORTER is a database of information on federally funded scientific and medical research projects being conducted at research institutions.

Website: https://projectreporter.nih.gov/reporter.cfm

Source